#### Energy Levels, Sublevels, & Orbitals

Public video about energy levels, sublevels and orbitals all parts of the atom and about how electrons are involved in these parts and where we can locate them. So the whole point of this video is this chapter focuses on electrons, where are the electrons in an atom that's? What we're going to get at in this video and start so let's? First, refresh our memory and take a look at hydrogen. So if you remember hydrogen has an atomic number of 1 and let's, just remember from first semester that the atomic.

Number is the number of protons. And if the atom is neutral, then we know our protons are equal to our electrons that's. What a neutral atom is there's, no leftover charge.

So if hydrogen has one proton, then it has one electron we'll, assume, it's neutral. So it's, this one electron that's, what we want to focus on where in the atom is this one electron and that's. What the point of the video is, so I have drawn a hydrogen atom for you and hydrogen has one energy level.

We'll, learn later on in this video, how. To figure out how many energy levels we can also call this energy level, a shell. So this is the first energy level is the closest to the nucleus also called ground state, the first energy level. And only the first is the exception. It can hold up to two electrons, meaning, it can hold less than that. But no more than two every other energy level from there on out can hold up to eight.

So if my hydrogen only has one electron, then let's, go ahead and fill this in here's. The one electron okay, I'm going to. Use little dots represent electrons. So for the sake of argument we're going to put an electron either here here we'll kind of see there's a little of a pattern that I use, so I'll put the first one up there. Alright, okay.

Let's. Take a look at another atom. How about carbon? Well, carbon has a atomic number of sixes on the periodic table. Again, we know, that's the number of protons. And if carbon is neutral, those protons equal the electrons. And so we'll assume it's neutral, therefore, six.

Protons means six electrons again, our focus are the electrons. How do we fill the electrons in an atom? So like we learned last example, the first energy level or energy shell, or just we can even call it a shell can only hold up to two electrons.

So one two what's happened. Bottom. Can it hold anymore? No, well, we said that there are six electrons. We just got rid of two of them. So there's, four more left, the second energy level in all the energy levels from there on out can hold up to H, no more than. Eight it can hold less, but no more than eight again.

We add six, and we used up two, which mean there are four electrons left so let's fill those in one two. Notice, my pattern, three, four, again, total of one, two, three, four, five six. So again, first energy level, holding to the second energy can hold up to eight, but it's holding six. Okay, that's. Great let's. Look at another example, sodium has an atomic number of 11. So we know it has 11 protons and 11 electrons.

If it's neutral, and we'll assume it is. Sodium has one two three energy levels again, you'll learn about the energy levels in a second. So I have 11 protons. Remember, the rule the first energy level can only hold up to two, so there's, one, two, the second one can hold up to eight. So one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, okay, all right.

So that makes ten right, eight and two makes ten I have one more electron. These are my total electrons. So I need to use an extra energy level to get that - now 11 electrons. So if you care about the black. That's a total of 11 electrons, just a reminder, where are my valence?

Electrons? Remember, the outermost energy level is where I found my valence electrons and there's. Only one valence electron here on sodium. Okay, how about hydrogen valence? Electrons, one valence electron in hydrogen that's. Why they're in the same column?

How about carbon whew outermost energy level? One, two, three, four that's. Why?

Carbon is in column, four on the periodic table, just a refresher. Okay. So now that we've seen how these. Electrons are filling in let's go back to some of our terminology and refresh your memory, an energy level as we just saw has a sublevel within it. And within the sublevel there's, an orbital and again, I like to use this analogy. Hopefully this is looking familiar. Then an energy level represents the floors in a hotel.

The sublevel is a represents of rooms and the orbitals represent the beds in the room and remember, this is how we actually can find or where we can find electrons. So electrons are. Actually kind of like sleeping in the beds that are found in the room that are on the floor of a hotel. So kind of like, where can we find you? You are in a bed that is found in a room in the hotel floor. So let's, take this analogy, just one step further and look at this.

Okay. So this represents a piece of the pie. And if we think of an ad on being a circle, and then I've just kind of cut out a piece of the circle, okay. And if you notice here, I have energy level 1 and is equal to energy level.

Energy. Level 2 3 and 4 1 is the smallest ring. And so it's, very, very small, there's, not a lot of room.

The only sublevel that there is an energy level 1 is sublevel. S, in energy level, 2, there's, sublevel, S and sublevel P in energy level, 3 there's, sublevel, s, P and D. And in energy level, 4 there's, sublevel, s, P D and F. So now, you know the names of our sublevels they're, actually just letters. Okay. All right now in sublevel S, there's, only one orbital sublevel S, one, orbital sublevel, S, one, orbital sublevel S. One orbital in sublevel P, there are three orbitals. Wow, that's. A lot three orbitals and P, three, orbitals and P in sublevel, D, there's, five, orbitals, five and sub, low F, which you notice doesn't happen.

Often there are seven orbitals now to help remind you about this or help give you an analogy, here's, the hotel that's back. You go to the first floor, which is our energy level. And you go to the room. S, which is a sublevel, and you open that door and there's one bed, two electrons can fit in one orbital one.

Bed now, I go on to the second floor. The second floor is even bigger and there's more room. So I have named s and room P as always is there's going to be one bed. So two electrons can fill in there. And in room, P there's, always going to be three beds. So I've got two four, six total, electrons can fit in there.

Okay and I go to the third floor, there's even more room on the third floor, there's room for room. S, room, P and room. D, remember room. S, always has one. Orbital POS has three. And now we see D always. Has five look how many more electrons can fit it remember each bed or bad doll can hold up to two electrons.

Now, let's look up here on the fourth level, I have s, P, D and F. We said, s, holds one bed P holds three and D holds five. And now F holds seven. So two electrons can fit here 6, right 2, 4 6, 8 10 and 14. Electrons can be held in the F, and it keeps going on, but for our analogy right now. This is good enough. Ok?

Alright. So with that being said, there's, actually a way you can arrange the periodic. Table or the periodic tables, already arranged that can help you out with our sublevels.

This is perfect to sketch down this section the periodic table. The first two columns are the S sublevels, the middle transitional metals happen to be the D and the elements to the right, which are mostly nonmetals. But some metals are the P we call these the SDP block down below the Anthony's left acting ISIN. Lanthanides are the.

Dated : 18-Apr-2022